As an archipelago, Guadeloupe is categorized as a non-interconnected zone (zone non interconnectée, ZNI) in terms of its electrical grid. For this reason, energy for final consumption must either be generated locally or transformed from imported primary energy.
Guadeloupe’s energy dependence rate (defined as net energy imports divided by primary energy consumption, and expressed as a percentage) grew by 7 percentage points to 97% from 2008 to 2010, before falling gradually to 88% in 2016.
Such acute energy dependence leaves Guadeloupe highly vulnerable to disruptions in supply, which would curb economic growth and development.
Guadeloupe also relies heavily on fossil fuels, which account for nearly 90% of primary energy consumption in the archipelago. In terms of electricity generation, 80% of electricity produced in Guadeloupe is derived from fossil fuels. The resulting supply has a large carbon footprint: 820 g of CO₂ emitted per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.
Against the backdrop of international efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development, Guadeloupe’s bid to reduce energy dependence and transition to clean energy are significant challenges for the territory.
To meet those challenges, Guadeloupe’s regional government has adopted proactive energy policies that will foster both energy independence and energy transition from fossil fuels. The energy plan adopted by the regional government therefore sets ambitious objectives for energy demand management and for the development of renewable energy in Guadeloupe.